Pyruvate kinase (PK) is a key enzyme in the process of glycolysis, catalyzing phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) into pyruvate. Currently, PK isozyme type M2 (PKM2), one subtype of PK, has been proposed as a new tumor marker with high expression in various tumor tissues. Here we aimed to explore the effects of siRNAPKM2 on ovarian carcinoma (OC) cell lines...

Ovarian cancer is the most lethal malignancy of the female reproductive system with an overall mortality rate of greater than 70%. Our group has demonstrated that Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates the proliferation and invasion of ovarian cancer cells, inhibits apoptosis, and facilitates neovascularization by increasing expression of va...


Progestin resistance is the main obstacle to successful conservative therapy in young endometrial cancer patients. To investigate the molecular events that lead to progestin resistance and to find a possible way to reverse progestin resistance in endometrial cancer, we established a progestin-resistant Ishikawa cell line by long-term progestin trea...
To investigate the involvement of estrogen receptor (ER) beta in the proliferation of ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma by restoring ERbeta expression in a cell line ES-2. A plasmid with full length ERbeta cDNA, pRSV-ERbeta and its negative vector control pRSV were introduced into ES-2. The cells transfected were named according to the plasmids: ES...

In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring au...


... In vEDS cells, an ER perturbation was suggested by the abnormal ER distribution of the protein disulfide isomerase enzyme and by reduced expression of FKBP22, an ER resident peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans-ER isomerase involved in the folding of COLLIII triple helix [108,139,140]. Since the perturbed ER redox state may influence the down-regulation of Bcl-2 and the activation of the caspase-dependent apoptosis [141], and FKBP22 can have an anti-apoptotic role acting on the expression of Bcl-2 and caspases [142], this aspect merits further studies in vEDS fibroblasts. ...
To assess the clinical features and prognostic factors of malignant ovarian teratoma. Eighty-four patients with malignant ovarian teratoma between 1954 and 2001 were studied retrospectively. All patients were treated with surgery, the mid-period of follow-up was 146 months. Patient characteristics, surgical therapy, pathologic diagnosis, histologic...
To investigate the effects of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) on the proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells. Ovarian cancer cells of the lines SKOV-3 and ES-2 were cultured, and treated by FSH of the concentrations of 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 mU/ml for 48 h or 24 h respectively. The cells without FSH treatment we...

To express tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) protein using endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) and observe antitumor activity of secreted TRAIL in cell culture supernatant. EPC were isolated by immunomagnetic sorting. Human TRAIL plasmid was transfected into EPC by lipofectamine 2000. The cell culture supernatant was har...


China Europe International Business School China Europe International Business School (CEIBS), a joint-venture for management education, was co-founded by the Chinese government and European Union (EU) in 1994, with Shanghai Jiao Tong University and the EFMD serving as its executive partners. As China's only business school to originate from government-level collaboration, CEIBS is committed to educating responsible leaders versed in "China Depth, Global Breadth" in line with its motto of "Conscientiousness, Innovation and Excellence". Leaders from the Chinese central government and the EU have respectively lauded CEIBS as "a cradle of excellent executives" and "a role model of EU-China cooperation". CEIBS offers MBA, EMBA, Global EMBA, Finance MBA and Executive Education programmes. Renowned for its academic rigour, CEIBS is the first business school on the Chinese mainland to have been accredited by both EQUIS and AACSB and the only business school in Asia to have simultaneously made it to the Financial Times' top 30 list of MBA, EMBA and Executive Education programmes.
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains the most lethel gynecological malignancy. In the absence of an effective screening strategy, two thirds of patients are diagnosed in advanced clinical stage. Despite chemotherapy with cisplatin and paclitxel, primary or acquired chemoresistance faciltates survival of cancer cells, resulting in disease recurre...
Chemotherapy-resistance is the major obstacle for endometrial carcinoma patient administration. Accumulated evidences indicate that metformin sensitizes cancers from several different sites to chemotherapy drugs and reverses progestin resistance in endometrial cancer. Our group has demonstrated that metformin reverses progestin resistance and enhan...

Our previous study revealed that estrogen regulates nm23-H1 expression thus promoting cell migration-invasion via activating PIK3/Akt pathway. In this study, we explored the effect of hormone on hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1alpha), a key factor in cancer invasion and metastasis, via activation of Akt signaling transduction pathway. We treated t...

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