In Chinese grammar de hua (的话) is a very common and important word. It is used either alone or in combination with other words to express “if”. De hua is probably the most common way to express “if” in Chinese, in fact. Because of this, all students of Mandarin Chinese should be familiar with how to use this word, and that's what this guide is for.


School of Electronic, Information and Electrical Engineering The School of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering (SEIEE) at Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) was established in 2001, with its glorious history traced back to 1908 when the discipline of Electric Machines was founded. With a century-long history of reputation in research and education, SEIEE is crowned as “the Cradle of Chinese Electrical Engineers”. The school now has 12 departments and principal units including the Department of Electrical Engineering, the Department of Automation, the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, the Department of Electronic Engineering, the Department of Instrument Science and Engineering, the Department of Micro-Nano Electronics, the School of Cyber Security, the School of Software, the Academy of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, the Center for Advanced Electronic Materials and Devices, the Center for Teaching and Learning Development, and the Cooperative Medianet Innovation Center.
Snail, a key inducer of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), plays an important role in cancer metastasis. To better understand the role of Snail in the metastasis of ovarian carcinoma, expression of Snail was knocked down by antisense-Snail in the highly metastatic ovarian cancer cell line HO8910PM. Gene array analysis revealed that blocking S...
To express tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) protein using endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) and observe antitumor activity of secreted TRAIL in cell culture supernatant. EPC were isolated by immunomagnetic sorting. Human TRAIL plasmid was transfected into EPC by lipofectamine 2000. The cell culture supernatant was har...
Large amount of clinical evidence has demonstrated that insulin resistance is closely related to oncogenesis of endometrial cancer (EC). Despite recent studies showed the up-regulatory role of insulin in G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER/GPR30) expression, GPER expression was not decreased compared to control when insulin receptor was block...
To identify new genetic risk factors for cervical cancer, we conducted a genome-wide association study in the Han Chinese population. The initial discovery set included 1,364 individuals with cervical cancer (cases) and 3,028 female controls, and we selected a 'stringently matched samples' subset (829 cases and 990 controls) from the discovery set...
To study the expression of the human novel gene NM23-H1B in ovarian cancer. Forty-eight samples from patients with ovarian tumor at different clinical stages and 8 from normal ovaries were examined for NM23-H1B mRNA expression by using RT-PCR, northern blot and in situ hybridization. All samples expressed NM23-H1B mRNA through RT-PCR, while the lev...
School of Design Design education in the built environment at Shanghai Jiao Tong University can be traced back to the early twentieth century. In December 2017, the University grouped the design related disciplines scattered in different schools, and amalgamated three departments, Architecture, Design and Landscape Architecture, to establish the new School of Design. The new discipline cluster, incorporating the above 3 disciplines and named “innovative design”, has been identified by the university as one of the key 17 “double first class” discipline clusters which will receive significant future support and investment from the university.
Luteinizing hormone (LH) plays an important role in the development of ovarian cancer, and has been shown to inhibit apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. Similarly, survivin is a molecule that has been shown to inhibit apoptosis in other types of cancer. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether survivin can be induced by LH in ovaria...
To investigate the effects of sulindac metabolites on proliferation and apoptosis in the human umbilical vein endothelial cell line ECV304 in vitro. The proliferation profile of ECV304 was determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) method. Cell cycle distribution, apoptosis and the ultrastructure of ECV304 were detected by flow cytometry (FCM...
Huang Yaoshi later regrets bitterly for inflicting such a heavy punishment on his innocent apprentices. He sets off to find his daughter, who has left home after quarrelling with her father. He meets Mei Chaofeng at Guiyun Manor on Lake Tai, where Lu Chengfeng has settled down. He agrees that Mei Chaofeng has been duly punished since she has lost her sense of sight and her husband. He forgives her and asks her to find his other apprentices and bring them back to the manor so he can heal their legs. However, he never saw his other apprentices again: Chen Xuanfeng was killed by Guo Jing; Qu Lingfeng was killed by Shi Yanming; Wu Mianfeng died of illness; Feng Mofeng has become a blacksmith and is killed by Jinlun Guoshi in the sequel. Huang Yaoshi later accepts Lu Chengfeng's son, Lu Guanying, and Qu Lingfeng's daughter, Shagu, as his grand-apprentices.
Our previous study showed that Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4) expression was upregulated and significantly associated with histological grade through the analysis of OCT4 expression in 159 ovarian cancer tissue samples, and OCT4 mediated follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-induced anti-apoptosis in epithelial ovarian cancer. Neverthel...

School of Environmental Science and Engineering Environmental Science and Engineering (ESE) at Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) originated from the municipal engineering program established in 1926. The School of Environmental Science and Engineering (SESE) was formally established in 1999 and environmental engineering doctorate program and environmental engineering master program of engineering were established in 2001 and 2002, respectively. In 2003,the first level discipline doctoral program of environmental science and engineering was approved.

Huang Yaoshi later regrets bitterly for inflicting such a heavy punishment on his innocent apprentices. He sets off to find his daughter, who has left home after quarrelling with her father. He meets Mei Chaofeng at Guiyun Manor on Lake Tai, where Lu Chengfeng has settled down. He agrees that Mei Chaofeng has been duly punished since she has lost her sense of sight and her husband. He forgives her and asks her to find his other apprentices and bring them back to the manor so he can heal their legs. However, he never saw his other apprentices again: Chen Xuanfeng was killed by Guo Jing; Qu Lingfeng was killed by Shi Yanming; Wu Mianfeng died of illness; Feng Mofeng has become a blacksmith and is killed by Jinlun Guoshi in the sequel. Huang Yaoshi later accepts Lu Chengfeng's son, Lu Guanying, and Qu Lingfeng's daughter, Shagu, as his grand-apprentices.


The Ministry of Commerce assumed administration of the college in 1904, and in 1905 changed the college's name to Imperial Polytechnic College of the Commerce Ministry. In 1906, the college was placed under the Ministry of Posts and Telegraphs, and its name was changed to Shanghai Industrial College of the Ministry of Posts and Telegraphs. When the Republic of China was founded, the college was placed under the Ministry of Communications and its name was once again changed, this time to Government Institute of Technology of the Communications Ministry.
Objective To assess the effect of 17β-estradiol(E2) on cell proliferation, cell invasiveness and its regulation of MTA3, Snail and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) expression in the ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma cell line ES2, and to further investigate the mechanism involved. Methods We first investigated expression of ERα, ERβ, PR and E-cad...
To investigate natural spontaneous menopausal age, menstruation span and their relationship with menarche age and parity in Pudong district of Shanghai. From Jan 2007 to Jul 2008, 15 083 spontaneous menopause women undergoing cervical cancer screening were enrolled in this study. The questionnaire included menarche age, parity, spontaneous menopaus...
Recent studies have suggested that follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) plays an important role in ovarian epithelial carcinogenesis. We demonstrated that FSH stimulates the proliferation and invasion of ovarian cancer cells, inhibits apoptosis, and facilitates neovascularisation. Our previous work has shown that transient receptor potential channel...
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