... This process takes place at the beginning of vascular development and during post-natal life (11,22). Myeloid cells and EPCs are recruited by pro-angiogenic or pro-inflammatory factors to the tumor vascular bed, where they differentiate into ECs and give place to neovasculature (23)(24)(25). Vasculogenesis has a modest impact on tumor vascularization when the angiogenesis pathway is active, however, it is recognized as an important rescue process when this pathway is blocked (10,26). For instance, when angiogenesis is inhibited after anti-angiogenic treatment or radiotherapy, myeloid cells, and EPCs are recruited by the stroma-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) in response to an increased level of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) (10,26). ...

... Interestingly, estradiol may play a dual role in modulating NRF2 activity. On the one hand, its metabolites activate NRF2 via the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (independent of the ER) [29]. While recent studies demonstrated that estradiol leads to an activation of NRF2 in a wide range of cell types [30,31], the estradiol effect was only noted on protein and not on mRNA levels, suggesting that the main effect of estradiol is based on NRF2 protein stabilization [32]. ...
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