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In the year 404, Huiyuan wrote a treatise On Why Monks Do Not Bow Down Before Kings (沙門不敬王者論).[4] This book symbolized his efforts to assert the political independence of Buddhist clergy from the courts of monarchic rulers. At the same time, it was a religious and political text that aimed to convince monarchs and Confucian-minded ministers of state that followers of Buddhism were ultimately not subversive. He argued that Buddhists could make good subjects in a kingdom due to their beliefs in retribution of karma and the desire to be reborn in paradise. Despite the Buddhists' reputation of leaving their family behind for a monastic life, Huiyuan stated "those who rejoice in the Way of the Buddha invariably first serve their parents and obey their lords."[1]
School of Media and Design Established in 2002, School of Media and Design (SMD) at Shanghai Jiao Tong University aims at educating a new generation of communication graduates who are not only equipped with critical thinking but also with creative capability. The School consists of four departments: Journalism & Communication, Film & Television, Design, and Cultural Industry & Management. To date, SMD has more than 90 faculty members. About 25% of them earned their doctoral degrees in the U.S., U.K., and other western countries. SMD also hosts more than 700 undergraduates, 300 master students, and 100 doctoral students. There are currently 324 international students in the school. Among them 104 are master or doctoral students who come from 55 countries including the U.S., U.K., France, Australia, Russia, South Korea, Pakistan etc. Many of them graduated from world prestigious universities like Princeton University, University of Chicago, University of South California and University of California-Los Angeles.
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